I just purchased a cheap gold lamp. As expected, the gold is typically super shiny and yellow (see below).
How can I make it look more like weathered/antique gold?
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I assume the look you're hoping for is a little like this, a dirty gold:
source, actually a 3d render
If you're not planning on rebending the stand a lot, I'd suggest taking some acrylic paint (maybe some raw umber and black or similar dark and muddy colour), mix it with a little chalk or plaster (gypsum) to make it more dirty and matte (but make sure it doesn't dry out too quickly - you can add a little water while you mix), take a piece of cloth, dip it into the mixture, and rub it unto the lamp.
This way, all crevices will take the paint, and all larger smooth surfaces will be wiped clean again by the cloth.
As a side note: I don't really see the 'gold' in the lamp, only a very subtle, almost green hue. Is it the lighting, the colour profile, or is it really that faint?
Depending on how clear the 'gold' is on the lamp, you can first coat it with some acrylic gold paint, using either spray paint, or acrylic, after you've sanded it with very fine sandpaper.
Regular acrylic gold paint is usually too cool or too warm, and too shiny (or, rather, glittery). There are more professional paints available, but you can of course also create your own mixture (white, yellow, and if you're so inclined, maybe warm it up with a very little bit of red).
In both cases, parts of the coating might come off afterwards (especially with acrylics), but this could actually increase the faux antique look.
It depends on what you want to achieve in the end. Just a few ideas:
Well, gold and antique-looking don't really go hand in hand :(
However, I saw lamps which might look like you want, and this is how you might get there. Apply some layer of paint - which will give the "antique" look. Before it dries / cures, use a brush, even some soft paper, to comb the paint over the surface of the lamp. In a way it would look scratched, but it will also look like it has "deposits" due to time passing by. You may even uses different colors and / or different shades of paint.
Maybe gray for dust, brown for rust, blue / green for some copper oxides... Imagination, baby :) Just decide the details about how you want it to look like.
The gold-coloured coating is probably very thin so abrading it could easily scratch right through. Besides, it would look more like scratched-up shiny stuff than old weathered stuff.
Depending on the look you're going for and the thickness of the base material, beating it (try a wooden or rubber mallet before anything metal) could be used to make it less mirror-like.
A coat or two of satin varnish will also make the shine less garish, but test how will it sticks. I've found water-based varnish sticks well to real brass, at least when I don't want it to.