I'm interested in the perspective of large objects, spanning enough distance that the spherical nature of the earth comes into play.
The vanishing point, provided the parallel lines are on the ground plane, is on the horizon and it will always be eye-level . The horizon can be looked at as the sum of all of the vanishing points. For someone standing at 5'7" the horizon is 2.9 miles away from the viewer.
I think it is possible the curve you see above is because the ground is not flat (relative to the curve of the earth,) ie. there is a slight hill there, or the line of the shore is not perfectly straight. The curve of the Earth is so gradual you will not see its effect from the ground. So unless those shacks are over 2000 feet apart the horizon is not 2.9 miles away in this image. Keep in mind the camera lens has a big part in how distorted the perspective becomes. Think of a picture from a fish-eye lens.
However, to get the kind of perspective effect you are talking about, where you are fitting an exaggerated perspective onto the drawing plane, you would use curved lines. This is called Spherical or Curvilinear Perspective. M.C. Escher is a great artist to study to see this technique in action. The fish-eye lens distortion previously mentioned is a perfect example of spherical perspective.