An old question, Is there a way to determine the fiber content of a yarn if I've lost the label?, asked about identifying the fiber content of mystery yarn. The answer it received described a number of simple tests that identify broad categories of fibers.
For analyzing crime scene evidence, there are a number of forensic tools that can identify not only the exact type of fiber, but sometimes even the manufacturer. I imagine some of this work involves things like chemical tests that could not readily be done at home. However, much of it is as simple as looking at the fibers under a microscope and comparing that to pictures of different fibers. A microscope or strong magnifier is something many people have ready access to, or a camera or phone camera can often be used for this purpose.
Are there forensic tools, like simple microscopic examination, that can be done with basic equipment to which most people would have access, that would reliably and specifically identify the fiber content of mystery yarn or fabric?
For clarification, I'm generally aware of the nature of the forensic tests, but not the specific details. For example, I don't know whether a specialized microscope is needed for microscopic examination. I'm hoping readers very familiar with fiber identification or forensic methods can identify/describe techniques that would likely be accessible in a home setting to specifically identify fibers.