Spent five years in the hand tool industry, working with hardware, and working with glues, and adhesives. Also looking at options that are specifically for ceramic. There are a few things to keep in mind. 1) None of these options are for food-grade safe. Wasn't mentioned in the question above. 2) Not all adhesives are water-proof. 3) It might not be in this instance, make sure your area has something covering surface below the project you are working on. Have a spatula/scraper on hand for application so you are not touching it with your hands/fingers. Also keep in mind to wear rubber gloves to keep your fingers safe.
All that aside here are some options:
Gorilla 2 Part Epoxy, 5 Minute Set (this type was specifically for ceramic) https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B001Z3C3AG/
Krazy Glue for home and office use https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07YQ7DZBJ/
J-B Weld 50112 ClearWeld 5 Minute Set Epoxy (this is used with ceramic) https://www.amazon.com/dp/B009EU5ZM0/
I have personally worked with Gorilla Glue, as well as J-B Weld. Both are excellent brand.